", "Los orígenes del poblamiento balear: una discusión no acabada", "Der Übergang Kupferzeit / Frühbronzezeit am Nordwestrand des Karpatenbeckens – Kulturgeschichtliche und paläometallurgische Betrachtungen", "Neolithic mitochondrial haplogroup H genomes and the genetic origins of Europeans", Anthropology of skeletal remains of Bell – Beaker people from Moravia (Czech Republic), The Eastern Border of the Bell Beaker-Phenomenon - Volker Heyd, 2004, "Ancient DNA reveals impact of the "Beaker Phenomenon" on prehistoric Europeans", Il complesso culturale di "Fosso Conicchio" (Viterbo), "A Review of the Early Late Neolithic Period in Denmark: Practice, Identity and Connectivity", "The Transformation of Europe in the Third Millennium BC: the example of 'Le Petit-Chasseur I + III' (Sion, Valais, Switzerland)", "The Beaker phenomenon and the genomic transformation of northwest Europe", Historical model of settling and spread of Bell Beakers Culture in the mediterranean France, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bell_Beaker_culture&oldid=1001836446, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from October 2018, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from October 2018, Articles with incomplete citations from August 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, All Bell Beaker scientific articles on line, This page was last edited on 21 January 2021, at 16:13. All-over ornamented (AOO) and All-over-corded (AOC), and particularly Maritime style beakers are featured, although from a fairly late context and possibly rather of Epi-maritime style, equivalent to the situation in the north of the Netherlands, where Maritime ornamentation continued after it ceased in the central region of Veluwe and were succeeded c. 2300 BC by beakers of the Veluwe and Epi-Maritime style.[20]. 99 Bell Beaker pottery spread across western and central Europe beginning around 2750 100 BCE before disappearing between 2200–1800 BCE. [98] The Beaker-culture declined in use around 2200–2100 BC with the emergence of food vessels and cinerary urns and finally fell out of use around 1700 BC. The Bell Beaker phenomenon in the Iberian Peninsula defines the late phase of the local Chalcolithic and even intrudes in the earliest centuries of the Bronze Age. Close analysis of the bronze tools associated with beaker use suggests an early Iberian source for the copper, followed subsequently by Central European and Bohemian ores. Noting the distribution of Beakers was highest in areas of transport routes, including fording sites, river valleys and mountain passes, Beaker 'folk' were suggested to be originally bronze traders, who subsequently settled within local Neolithic or early Chalcolithic cultures, creating local styles. Find out the latest studies and discuss them on the Ancient DNA Forum. In the northwest and in the Palermo kept almost intact its cultural and social characteristics, while in the south-west there was a strong integration with local cultures. Presumably Beaker culture spread from here to the remainder of Denmark, and to other regions in Scandinavia and northern Germany as well. The bowl tradition occurs over the whole country except the south-west and feature a majority of pit graves, both in flat cemeteries and mounds, and a high incidence of uncremated skeletons, often in crouched position. Beaker domestic architecture in Britain and Ireland By Alex M. Gibson18. Previously some archaeologists considered the Bell-beaker people to have lived only within a limited territory of the Carpathian Basin and for a short time, without mixing with the local population. [34] They were used as status display amongst disparate elites. [67] The earliest British beakers were similar to those from the Rhine,[99] but later styles are most similar to those from Ireland. Franco Nicolis. Distribution of the mature Bell Beaker culture, Connections with other parts of Beaker culture, Jeunesse, C. 2014. Influenced by the Megalithic culture. There is virtually no evidence in Sardinia of external contacts in the early second millennia, apart from late Beakers and close parallels between Bonnannaro pottery and that of the North Italian Polada culture. Collective burials in dolmen structures in Ibiza could be contrasted against the individual burials in Mallorca. [29], Genetic findings also lend support to the migratory hypothesis. However, such evidence from skeletal remains was brushed aside as a new movement developed in archaeology from the 1960s, which stressed cultural continuity. After a break of one or two centuries, Bell Beaker pottery was introduced in a second building phase that lasted to the Early Bronze Age, about 1800 BC. Bell Beaker people took advantage of transport by sea and rivers, creating a cultural spread extending from Ireland to the Carpathian Basin and south along the Atlantic coast and along the Rhône valley to Portugal, North Africa, and Sicily, even penetrating northern and central Italy. The Bell Beaker Phenomenon and the Interaction Spheres of the EBA East Mediterranean: Similarities and differences By Lorenz Rahmstorf Publisher: Bibracte, Centre archéologique européen After 2000 BC, other copper sources supersede Ross Island. As for the settlements and monuments within the Iberian context, Beaker pottery is generally found in association with local Chalcolithic material and appears most of all as an "intrusion" from the third millennium in burial monuments whose origin may go back to the fourth or fifth millennia BC. The flexed skeleton of a man 1.88 tall in a cist in a slightly oval round cairn with "food vessel" at Cornaclery, County Londonderry, was described in the 1942 excavation report as "typifying the race of Beaker Folk",[83] although the differences between Irish finds and e.g. Gordon Childe interpreted the presence of its characteristic artefact as the intrusion of "missionaries" expanding from Iberia along the Atlantic coast, spreading knowledge of copper metallurgy. Also, the presence of spindles at sites like Son Ferrandell-Oleza [58] or Es Velar d’Aprop [59] point to knowledge of making thread and textiles from wool. A short-lived first occupation of pre-Bell Beaker building phase about 3000 BC revealed the remains of a tower, some pavings, and structures for burning. Most LN I metal objects are distinctly influenced by the western European Beaker metal industry, gold sheet ornaments and copper flat axes being the predominant metal objects. From there, the Bell Beaker culture spread further into Eastern Europe, replacing the Corded Ware culture up to the Vistula (Poland). The Bell Beaker culture (or, in short, Beaker culture) is an archaeological culture named after the inverted-bell beaker drinking vessel used at the very beginning of the European Bronze Age. 5. It is associated with the diffusion of Proto-Italo-Celto-Germanic speakers and haplogroup R1b-L11 (and subclades) across central and western Europe. The new international trade routes opened by the Beaker people became firmly established and the culture was succeeded by a number of Bronze Age cultures, among them the Únětice culture in Central Europe, the Elp culture and Hilversum culture in the Netherlands, the Atlantic Bronze Age in the British Isles and the Atlantic coast of Europe, and by the Nordic Bronze Age, a culture of Scandinavia and northernmost Germany–Poland. A distinctive 'barbed wire' pottery decoration is thought to have migrated through central Italy first. One of the most important sites in Ireland during this period is Ross Island. The Bell Beaker phenomenon in the Iberian Peninsula defines the late phase of the local Chalcolithic and even intrudes in the earliest centuries of the Bronze Age. [41], R1b was detected in two male skeletons from a German Bell Beaker site dated to 2600–2500 BC at Kromsdorf, one of which tested positive for M269 but negative for its U106 subclade (note that the P312 subclade was not tested for), while for the other skeleton the M269 test was unclear. In its mature phase, the Bell Beaker culture is understood as not only a collection of characteristic artefact types, but a complex cultural phenomenon involving metalwork in copper and gold, archery, specific types of ornamentation, and (presumably) shared ideological, cultural and religious ideas. The Beaker phenomenon and the genomic transformation of northwest Europe From around 2750 to 2500 bc, Bell Beaker pottery became widespread across western and central Europe, before it disappeared between 2200 and 1800 bc. Today, it is unclear whether this can be seen as a culture. The same lack of typical Beaker association applies to the about thirty found stone battle axes. A series of copper mines from here are the earliest known in Ireland, starting from around 2500 BC (O'Brien 2004). An analysis using MyTrueAncestry.com to compare the genomes of the Bell Beaker people from Germany, France and Britain with those of modern Europeans showed that the closest match in term of genetic distance were British, Ducth, German, Danish and Swedish people. [117] Towards the transition to LN II some farm houses became extraordinarily large. Lost Paradise...? Chronological evolution is used to reconstruct the rhythm of Bell Beaker diffusion and the environmental background that could explain this mobility and the socioeconomic changes observed during this period of transition toward Bronze Age societies. This was true of children and adults, indicative of some significant migration wave. [45], A study published in Nature in February 2018 confirmed that Bell Beaker males carried almost exclusively R1b, but the very first ones (in Iberia) had no Steppe autosomes or R at all.[46]. Later, other characteristic regional styles developed. [citation needed]. Typical to northern Jutland, however, cremations have been reported, also outside the Beaker core area, once within the context of an almost full Bell Beaker equipment. The Bell Beaker phenomenon in the souteast of France: The state of research and preliminary remarks about the TGV excavations and some other sites of the Provence. Clusters of Late Neolithic Beaker presence similar to northern Jutland appear as pockets or "islands" of Beaker Culture in northern Europe, such as Mecklenburg, Schleswig-Holstein, and southern Norway. By 2500 BCE, it is possible to distinguish in many The Bell Beaker period marks the transition from the Late Neolithic or Chalcolithic (depending on the region) to the Early Bronze Age. Yet, the Bell Beaker culture spread exactly the wrong way round, from Southwest Europe towards the east and north. James Mallory (2013) notes that the Beaker culture was associated with a hypothetical cluster of Indo-European dialects termed "North-West Indo-European," a cluster which includes the (predecessors of) Celtic, Italic, Germanic and Balto-Slavic branches. It was probably gathered in streams in Cornwall and Devon as cassiterite pebbles and traded in this raw, unrefined state. [95] They were subsequently widely adopted in other parts of Europe,[96] possibly showing a change in the technology of warfare.[97]. [32], The beakers are suggested to have been designed for the consumption of alcohol, and the introduction of the substance to Europe may have fuelled the beakers' spread. The cultural concepts originally adopted from Beaker groups at the lower Rhine blended or integrated with local Late Neolithic Culture. The pattern is clearest in Britain, where the new study reports 155 samples ranging in age from between about 6,000 and 3,000 years ago, a period and place from which there was previously no published data. [64] Research in N northern Poland shifted the north-eastern frontier of this complex to the western parts of the Baltic with the adjacent Northern European plain. Its Neolithic form elaborated extensively picture is far sketchier and based on the ancient DNA.. 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